Prize for Industrial Applications of Physics Winners
For the design and development of integrated superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that are the basis for the emerging commercial applications of magnetic sensing, such as biomagnetism, non-destructive testing, and materials characterization.
For applying a wide range of basic physics and electronics to the design and improvement of frequency and time standards, including a cesium clock introduced in 1992 that is the most accurate, stable, and reliable commercial time-keeping device in the world.
For fundamental discoveries in the materials science of silicide sand metal alloys with significant applications to interconnection technology, leading to improved performance and reliability of integrated circuits.
For his work on medical diagnostic scanning and imaging devices, resulting in a competitive advantage for his company and improved health care worldwide.
For their discovery and subsequent development of the new method of simulated annealing for the optimization of the physical layout of complex integrated electrical circuits.
For the discovery of a new high strength permanent magnet alloy, microcrystalline neodymium-iron-boron, and processes for manufacturing permanent magnets for electric motors and other applications.
For their leadership of research on the physics of the ring laser gyro and of its successful development into a major product line which has significantly upgraded the performance and utility of inertial guidance systems.
For his contributions to the technology of electron beam lithography, for the direct production of integrated circuits, and to the understanding of the resolution limits of electron beam resists.
For his leading role in the invention and development of single-walled magnetic bubble memory devices, which has stimulated new discoveries and understanding in the field of magnetism.
For contribution made to the practical applications of optical communications through the understanding and discovery of materials and techniques for the fabrication of glass fiber wave-guides.