NSF Provides Handy Booklet on Science and Technology Funding

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Publication date: 
22 November 1995
Number: 
166

The Science Resources Studies Division of the National Science
Foundation has put out an updated version of its handbook entitled
"Science and Technology Pocket Data Book: 1994."  The small
reference handbook provides a number of useful statistics on S&T
funding patterns from information compiled over the past decade.
The book, NSF 94-323, can be obtained by calling (703) 306-1777.
Most of the data are also available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/stats.htm.  A sampling of the data is
provided below:

NATIONAL R&D FUNDING PATTERNS

Expenditures for R&D in 1993 = $160.8 billion

By Source:                              By Character of Work:
Industry - 52%                          Development - 59%
Federal Government - 42%                Applied research - 25%
Universities and Colleges - 4%          Basic Research - 16%
Other nonprofit institutions - 2%  

Employed FTE (full-time equivalent) R&D scientists and engineers in
1989 = 949,300

By Sector:
Industry - 76%
Universities, colleges and other nonproft institutions - 18%
Federal Government - 6%

Federal R&D budget authority, by function: 1995

Total R&D:                         Basic Research:
Defense - 55%                      Health - 44%
Health - 16%                       General science - 19%
Space - 11%                        Space - 12%
Other - 5%                         Defense - 9%
General science - 4%               Energy - 7%
Energy - 4%                        Agriculture - 4%
Environment - 3%                   Environment - 3%
Agriculture - 2%                   Other - 2%
   

ACADEMIC R&D EXPENDITURES

By source of funds: 1993           By field: 1992
Federal Government - 57%           Life science - 54%
Universities and colleges - 19%    Engineering - 16%
Industry - 8%                      Physical sciences - 11%
State and local governments - 8%   Environmental - 7%
Other nonprofit institutions - 8%  Social sciences - 4%
                                   Mathematical &
                                       computer sciences - 4%
                                   Psychology - 2%
                                   Other sciences - 2%
   

R&D IN US INDUSTRY

Expenditures for industrial R&D, by source of funds:
(millions of current dollars)

Year           Industry       Federal
1970           $10,288        $7,306
1980           30,476         12,752
1985           57,043         25,333
1990           73,980         27,862
1991           76,938         22,586
1992           79,000         26,100
1993 (est)   81,300         28,300

EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS

Doctorates awarded in major science and engineering fields

Field                         1982           1992
Physical sciences             2,694          3,749
Mathematics                      720          1,058
Computer sciences                220             789
Environmental sciences           657             824
Psychology                    3,159          3,252
Social sciences               3,077          3,388
Engineering                   2,646          5,437
Biological and                4,844          5,857
  agricultural sciences    
     

WORKING SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS

Employed doctoral scientists, by sector: 1991
(Total = 367,440)

Educational institutions - 50%
Industry - 32%
Federal Government - 6%
Other - 5%
Nonprofit organizations - 4%
State and local governments - 3%

PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD S&T

Percentage saying that S&T has a positive or negative impact
on...:1992

Issue                         Positive       Negative
Standard of living            over 80%       under 10%
Public health                 just under 80% about 10%
General working conditions    over 70%       just under 10%
Enjoyment of life             just over 70%  about 10%
World peace                   about 50%      about 25%
     
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