Emilio Segrè Visual Archives

More than 30,000 photos of scientists and their work

Attention ESVA Patrons:

The Emilio Segrè Visual Archives’ site is moving soon and adopting an open access approach to digital image sharing. Once we have transitioned to the new site in 2021, we will no longer charge for our high-resolution digital images or usage fees (note that we do not hold copyright to all the images in our collections and you will still need to obtain permission for those which we do not own).

If you are working on a long-term project, we advise you to wait until the migration is complete so that you may obtain our copies for free. If you cannot wait, email us at nbl [at] aip.org and we will do what we can to assist you. We will not be offering refunds for past purchases.

For more information, please visit our FAQ page on the Ex Libris Universum blog. 

Brattain Walter F4

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Brattain Walter F4

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We charge a usage fee per photo if the photo is published, reproduced in a product or publicly exhibited. This is not a license in the legal sense. As a non-profit institution, we do not make any money providing these photographs. It is only by assessing usage fees that we are able to cover the cost of providing publication quality copies of our photos, preserving the photograph collection according to archival standards, and providing access to the collection by maintaining an online image database. The copyright holder may charge a fee in addition to our service fee.

Images are for use in educational projects only and must be used in a respectful manner.

$20.00
Image title: 
The Transistor
Credit line: 
Photograph by Nick Lazarnick, Alcatel-Lucent/Bell Labs, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Brattain Collection
Description: 

'Release: A.M. Papers of Thursday, July 1, 1948. The Transistor, Bell Telephone Laboratories' latest contribution to electronics and electrical communication. Working on an entirely new physical principle discovered by the Laboratories in the course of fundamental research into the electrical properties of solids, the device will serve as an amplifier or an oscillator -- perform nearly all the functions of an ordinary vacuum tube, but involves no vacuum, no glass envelope, no grid, no plate, no cathode and therefore no warm-up delay. Contained in the simple metal cylinder are two extremely fine wires, whose points rest on a small dot of semi-conductive material soldered to a metal base. The Transistor has been shown to produce amplification as high as 100 to 1 (20 decibels). Some test models have been operated as amplifiers at frequencies up to ten million cycles per second.'

Photo date: 
1948
Original format: 
1 photographic print (black and white; 9.5 x 7 inches)
Person(s): 
Brattain, Walter H. (Walter Houser), 1902-1987
Shockley, William, 1910-1989
Bardeen, John
Collection: